Problems on profit and loss |Formulas |Solved questions & Answers

In many entrance examinations such campus placement,government exam & MBA entrance examinations,profit and loss related questions are asked generally so this is a very important topic.

Let’s start

Today we will learn about the problems on profit and loss with the important formula and some solved questions and answers step by step:

Important Formula

1.Cost price(C.P)=The price at which an article is purchased.

2.Selling price(S.P)=The price at which an article is sold.

3.Profit or Gain=When the selling price is more than the cost price then difference between the selling  price and cost price is known as Profit or Gain.

Profit or Gain=Selling price(S.P)-Cost price(C.P)

4. Loss:When the cost price is more than the selling price the difference between the cost price and the selling price is known as Loss.

Loss=Cost price(C.P)-Selling price(S.P)

Note:Profit or Loss always depends on the cost price of the article.

5.Gain percentage:(Gain %)

Gain %=(Gain/cost price) *100

6.Loss percentage:(Loss %)

Loss %=(Loss/cost price) *100

7.Selling price(S.P)

S.P=[ (100+Gain%)/100 ]  *C.P

S.P=[(100-Loss%)/100] *C.P

From the above the two above formula,we can conclude

8.If an article is sold at a gain of 20% then S.P=120% of C.P

9.If an article is sold at a loss of 20% then S.P=80% of C.P

10.Cost price(C.P)

C.P=[100 /(100 +Gain%)] * S.P

C.P=[100/(100-Loss%)] * S.P 

11.Suppose a person sells two same items ,one  at gain of p % and other at loss of p % then seller always loss 


Loss %=(common gain and loss %)2/100=p2/100

Here p2 means square of p.

12.If seller sells the articles/product at the cost price but uses the false weight then

Gain%=[error value / (true value-error value)] *100


Marked price:This is the marked price on the article for the selling purpose.

Discount price:This is  the reduction in price from the marked price on the article or product 

Profit & Loss:Solved Questions and Answers

1.A person purchase a mobile phone at cost price of Rs 8000 and sell it at the price of Rs 10,000.Find out the Gain & Gain %.



Gain%=(Gain/C.P) * 100

           =(2000/8000) * 100

           =25 %

2.A person sold his car at Rs 1,00,000.Find the cost price when it lost 20%.


We know that

C.P=[(100-Loss%)/100] *S.P


C.P=[(100-20)/100] *100000

C.P=(80/100) * 100000

C.P=Rs 80000

Therefore cost of car is  Rs 80,000

3.A businessman sells two cars at the price of Rs 10, gains 10% and other loss 10%.Find out the loss percentage.


Loss%=(10)2/100=100/100=1 %

Therefore,businessman losses 1%.

4.A man buys a mobile at Rs 2000 and sells it at a loss of 30%.What is the selling price of mobile  ?


Selling price of the mobile=(100-30)% of 2000

                                          =70% of 2000

                                          =(70/100) *2000

                                          =70 *20


Therefore,S.P=Rs. 1400

5.Some articles are bought at 6 articles for Rs.5 and sold at 5 articles for Rs.6.What would be the profit percentage ?

Suppose,number of articles bought=LCM of 5 and 6=30

C.P of 30 articles=Rs (5/6 *30)=Rs 25

S.P of 30 articles=Rs (6/5 *30)=Rs 36

profit=Rs. (36-25)=Rs.11

Profit %=Rs.(11/25 *100)=Rs. 44% 


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